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Durkheim’s analysis about crime: “contrary to current ideas, the criminal no longer appears an utterly unsociable creature, a sort of parasitic element, a foreign , unassimilable body introduced into the bosom of society. He plays a normal role in social life. For its part, crime must no longer be conceived of as an evil which cannot be circumscribed closely enough. Far from there being cause for congratulation when it drops too noticeably below the normal level, this apparent progress assuredly coincides with and is linked to some social disturbance. Thus the number of crimes of assault never falls so low as it does in time, and as a reaction, the theory of punishment is revised, or rather should be revised. If in fact crime is a sickness, punishment is the cure for it and cannot be conceived of otherwise; thus all the discussion afoused  revolves round knowing what punishment should be to fulfill its role as a remedy. But if crime is in no way pathological, the object of punishment cannot be to cure it and its true function must be sought elsewhere.” (Durkheim,1982:102-103)

Durkheim, Emile (1982) The Rules Of Sociological Method, freely translated by W. D. Hall

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