انجمن علمی جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران

محفل فکری دانشجویان جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران

شنبه ، ۳۰ دی ۱۳۹۶
معرفی برنامه‌ها
صوت برنامه‌ها
آرشیو
نشریه سره
آرشیو

آرون مراحل سه گانه کنت را اینگونه توضیح می­دهد:«بنا به قانون مراحل سه گانه، جان بشری از سه مرحله متوالی عبور کرده است. جان بشر، در مرحله نخست نمودها را بدین سان تبیین می­کند که آنها را به موجودات و نیروهایی قابل قیاس با خود انسان نسبت می­دهند در مرحله­ی دوم، جان انسان به موجودیت­های مجرد چون طبیعت متوسل می­شود. در مرحله سوم، انسان به این اکتفا می­کند که نمود­ها را مشاهده کرده، بستگی­ های منظمی را که ممکن است خواه در لحظه­ا ی معین و خواه در طی زمان در بین آنها یافت می­شود تعیین کند. انسان در این مرحله از کشف علل پدیده­ ها چشم می­پوشد و به همین اکتفا می­کند که قوانین حاکم بر پدیده ها را بشناساند.

«دو صورت از تناقضات مشخص کننده جامعه سرمایه داری، که در آثار علمی مارکس هم مشاهده می­ شوند، در کتاب بیانیه کمونیستی به چشم می خورند. صورت نخست، صورت تناقض نیروهای تولیدی با روابط تولیدی است یعنی ظاهرا هم روابط مالکیت و هم نحوه توزیع درآمدها، به همان آهنگ نیروهای تولیدی دگرگون نمی شوند. نظام سرمایه داری قادر است که بیش از پیش بر میزان تولید بیفزاید. لکن به رغم این افزایش ثروت ها، فقر همچنان نصیب بخش اعظم جامعه است.

In what relation do the Communists stand to the proletarians as a whole?

“The Communists do not form a separate party opposed to other working-class parties.
They have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole.
They do not set up any sectarian principles of their own, by which to shape and mould the proletarian movement.

The Communists are distinguished from the other working-class parties is only: (1) In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries, they point out and bring to the front the common interests of entire proletariat, independently of nationality. (2) In the various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole. The Communists, therefore, are on the one hand, practically,the most advanced and resolute section of the workingclass parties of every country, that section which pushes forward all others; on the other hand, theoretically, they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly understanding the line of march, the conditions, and the ultimate general results of the proletarian movement.

The immediate aim of the Communist is the same as that of all the other proletarian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat” (Marx & Engels:1970,22-23).

Marx, K., & Engels, F (1970) Manifesto of the Communist Party, translated by Samuel Moore

ترجمه ی فارسی متن فوق در ادامه ی مطلب

“A similar movement is going on before our own eyes. Modern bourgeois society with its relations of production, of exchange and of property, a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange, is like the sorcerer, who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. For many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production, against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeoisie and of its rule. It is enough to mention the commercial aises that by their periodical return put on its trial, each time more threateningly, the existence of the entire bourgeois society. In these crises a great part not only of the existing products, but also of the previously created productive forces, are periodically destroyed. In these crises there breaks out an epidemic that, in all earlier epochs, would have seemed an absurdity — the epidemic of over-production.

Society suddenly finds itself put back into a state of momentary barbarism; it appears as if a famine, a universal war of devastation had cut off the supply of every means of subsistence; industry and commerce seem to be destroyed; and why? Because there is too much civilization, too much means of subsistence, too much industry, too much commerce. The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society, endanger the existence of bourgeois property. The conditions of bourgeois society are too narrow to comprise the wealth created by them. And how does the bourgeoisie get over these crises? On the one hand by enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces; on the other, by the conquest of new markets, and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say, by paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises, and by diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented.

The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself.”(Marx &  Engels,1970:38)

 

Marx, K., & Engels, F (1970) Manifesto of the Communist Party, translated by Samuel Moore

ترجمه فارسی متن فوق در ادامه مطلب

What is a Social Fact?

Here, then, is a category of facts which present very special characteristics: they consist of manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him. Consequently, since they consist of representations and actions, they cannot be confused with organic phenomena, nor with psychical phenomena, which have no existence save in and through the individual consciousness. Thus they constitute a new species and to them must be exclusively assigned the term  “social” (Durkeim,1982:52).

Durkheim, Emile (1982) The Rules Of Sociological Method, freely translated by W. D. Hall

ترجمه ی فارسی متن در ادامه مطلب